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Foreign Policy of Pakistan: A Critical Approach

Author: Maria Inês De Almeida Duarte Bastos

Affiliation: University of Westminster

Organization/Publisher: University of Westminster

Date/Place: April 2021/UK

Type of Literature: PhD Thesis

Number of Pages: 307


Keywords: Pakistan, Foreign Policy, Identity, Security


The author’s PhD thesis researches how the security and identity discourses are interlinked in Pakistan’s Foreign Policy. The Foreign Policy discourses in Pakistan are mainly constructed and represented by the State’s military establishment. These dynamics are heavily influenced by Pakistan’s relations with India, as Pakistan’s search for security is motivated by India’s hostility towards it. Since the inception of Pakistan, the state has been facing instability not only in the form of on-and-off wars with India, but also with the issues in Afghanistan. This study evaluates the external relationships to explain how security, identity and religion are interlinked in Pakistan. The approach used in this thesis is not the usual realist/non-realist approach, but the critical one. The post-colonial and feminist approach have been used to show the linkage between security, identity and religion. According to the author, these approaches offer the possibility to reveal the gaps and oversights in the analysis of how in the post-colonial state of Pakistan, security and identity are deeply rooted in the gendered and gendering masculinity narratives. The thesis consists of introductory chapter, six chapters and a conclusion. Chapter one examines the South Asian foreign policy literature with a main focus on Pakistan. The Second chapter discusses militarism and its agents in Pakistan. The third chapter analyzes the civil-military relations of Pakistan. The rest of the chapters analyze the relations of Pakistan with China, India, the US, and the Kashmir question in particular. The thesis investigation proves that the interlinking of security and identity shapes the foreign policy of Pakistan.

By: Ruby Clayton, CIGA Research Associate



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